Exercises that Help To Maintain or Build Strong Bones

shutterstock_451265800Osteoporosis can strike at any age and affects both men and women.

Osteoporosis is often known as “the silent thief” because bone loss occurs without symptoms.  It is sometimes confused with osteoarthritis because the names are similar. Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, with a loss of the normal strength and quality of the bone, as well as a decrease in bone mass. Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints and surrounding tissue, often described as wear and tear of a previously normal, smooth joint.  *

Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the removal of old bone.  The bones become weak and brittle making them more fragile and at risk of a fracture. (broken bones) Even a minor fall can have a significant impact –leading to a broken hip, spine, wrist or shoulder (the most common areas at risk)

Exercise is part of a healthy bone strategy

Weight bearing

We all know and understand how important exercise is for heart health. But it can’t be emphasized enough how important regular weight-bearing exercise is for bone health, too.  Weight bearing exercise is when you use your body weight in activities such as walking, running and weight lifting. The result is that weight bearing exercises help to develop more bone mass.   Brisk walking, dancing, tennis, and yoga have all been shown to help your bones become denser.  It will also improve your balance and strength, which could help to prevent falls.   But what about biking?   It’s good for your heart and lungs but is not considered weight-bearing, when you are seated.

Look at it this way.

It is recommended that you walk between three to five miles a week to help build or maintain healthy bones.  If we assume it takes between fifteen or twenty minutes to walk a mile, then spending between seventy-five to one hundred minutes a week (out of ten thousand and eighty minutes in a week) is minuscule compared to the enormous benefits you will reap.

Resistance Training

Resistance means you’re working against the weight of another object. Resistance exercise includes free weights or weight machines, water exercises that make your muscles work harder and resistance tubes— incorporated into your regular exercise regime two to three times a week will help build or maintain bone mass.

Stretching and Flexibility

Having flexible joints is another important aspect of help to keep osteoporosis at bay. Regular stretching, yoga, and Pilates are some of the ways you can ensure your joints stay lubricated and flexible.

There are of course other aspects to maintaining good bone health such as eating a healthy diet and ensuring you get enough calcium and vitamin D, but that’s a subject for another blog.

The important thing to keep in mind is that staying active, exercising and stretching are very effective strategies to help prevent osteoporosis.  And even if you have osteoporosis you can still make improvements by exercising.

Disclaimer

The material contained in this blog is for informational and educational purposes. Considerable efforts have been made to maintain the quality of the content.  However, it is strongly recommended that the treatment/management of any medical conditions mentioned here, should not be used by an individual/visitor of this blog, on their own, without consulting competent persons such as your doctor, or health care provider.   As always we encourage your comments on this blog or any others and hope you will join discussions.

 

 

* Source Osteoporosis Canada. Speaking of Bones. 2006.

 

 

Osteoarthritis: A rising epidemic as baby boomers age. Signs, Symptoms and Solutions.

shutterstock_274164731Arthritis consists of more than 100 different conditions, which range from relatively mild forms of tendonitis and bursitis to crippling systemic forms, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The common denominator for all these conditions is joint and musculoskeletal pain, often as a result of an inflammation of the joint lining.
Critical to the outcome of the disease is an early diagnosis as it only gets progressively worse.  And therapies work best when started as soon as possible.

Consider this:
• Over four million Canadian adults have arthritis, and the numbers continue to grow.
• By 2036 it’s estimated that almost one in five Canadian adults will have arthritis, an irreversible degeneration of the bone.
• Two out of three Canadians affected by arthritis are women
WHAT CAUSES OSTEOARTHRITIS?
Osteoarthritis starts when the cartilage, that tough elastic material that covers and protects the ends of bones that act as a cushion-like shock absorber, starts to break down and wear away. Joints become bigger as the body tries to heal itself, and bones begin to rub together, leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling. As we get older, our risk of developing osteoarthritis increases. Other risk factors include obesity, a previous joint injury and a genetic predisposition that researchers believe may have something to do with the shape of your bones and the way they fit together.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Understanding the signs and symptoms as well as treatment options can help to slow the progression of the disease which is an important step in living with Osteoarthritis:

Common signs and symptoms
• PAIN
• STIFFNESS
• JOINT DEFORMITY
• JOINT INSTABILITY
• LIMITED RANGE OF MOTION

TREATMENTS
Treatments are divided into non-medical therapies such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, bracing and splinting, education, weight loss and exercise. All of which can lead to improving function and biomechanics. Dietary supplements including chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine can be taken up to three times daily in doses of 400 mg and 500 mg respectively. While the medical evidence for these products is inconclusive, most rheumatologists do not feel they do harm and may, indeed, be helpful.
Depending on the severity, medical treatments may involve the use of acetaminophen anti-inflammatories (NAISD’s), topical non-steroidal naproxen, opioid analgesics such as codeine or morphine under careful doctor supervision. Joint injections with corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid for knee osteoarthritis can also be used. The most invasive option is joint replacement involves surgery.
Whatever your condition and treatment goals, it is important to heed the signs and symptoms and take action as soon as possible because osteoarthritis while not curable, is manageable, with the goal of keeping you active, engaged in activity, and pain free.

DISCLAIMER
The material contained in this blog is for informational and educational purposes. Great efforts have been made to maintain the quality of the content. However, it is strongly recommended that the treatment/management of any medical conditions mentioned here, should not be used by an individual/visitor of this blog, on their own, without consulting competent persons such as your doctor, or health care provider. As always we encourage your comments on this blog or any others and hope you will join discussions.

Six Top Tips For Healthy Aging

shutterstock_84108826.jpgA healthy older woman is active and independent. By active, I mean being able to do the things you want like meeting your friends, going out, and working out. You don’t have any limitations based on physical issues. Being independent is a more cognitive aspect o f health. It means you are able to do thins such as your own banking, your own housekeeping and travel without needing someone to go with you. You can live on your own, you’re not in any kind of institution.

What are the signs of healthy aging in older women?
There are several markers that are considered predictors for how well you are going to age in the next ten years. Those include:

  • Self-Assessment of quality of life
  • Body Mass Index
  • Ability to walk/run
  • Ability to squat down to the floor
  • Having a strong grip

What steps can you take?

The ability to grip and squat really speak to muscle strength and balance and overall physical fitness. The ability to squat is interesting become some women go walking or to exercise classes but may not be able to maintain their ability to squat. Being able to squat to the floor indicates strong posture and balance and decreases the risk of falling. Because if you fall, you are likely to break something and fractured hips lead to a 25% death rate.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that reflects the relationship between your weight and height. Healthy women have a BMI of between 20 and 25. Women in this range tend to do better life long, no matter what you’re looking at.
Eat Healthy More of the Time. Have lots of fruits and vegetables and reasonable amounts of protein. My daughter who is a dietitian advises an 80/20 rule. Eighty percent of the time, each a healthy diet based on Canada’s food guide. 20 per cent you can relax a little bit.
When it comes to exercise, you need to do two things; strength training to keep your bones strong and your upper body strong. And some form of aerobic exercise that elevates your heart rate for 30 minutes. Meaning you need to exercise with purpose-this is not walking the dog or have a hectic day, hectic is not aerobic.
Stay or become socially connected. A Canadian government study showed that social connectedness  is really important for healthy aging. And you will feel better than if you were isolated by staying at home.
Finally, medicine is a team sport. You and your doctor work in partnership to make good health decisions for you along with other practitioners; pharmacists, dietitians, physiotherapist and other healthcare providers.

* Excerpts taken from an interview with Dr. Brown in an article published in Mind Over Matter, Women’s Brain Health Initiative Magazine, 2014

#active #healthy #activeliving

Disclaimer
The material contained in this blog is for informational and educational purposes. Great efforts have been made to maintain the quality of the content.  However, it is strongly recommended that the treatment/management of any medical conditions mentioned here, should not be used by an individual/visitor of this blog, on their own, without consulting competent persons such as your doctor, or health care provider.   As always we encourage your comments on this blog or any others and hope you will join discussions.

 

Boning up on Bone Health Treatments

Part 3

As I mentioned in an earlier post, Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. This leads to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture (broken bones), particularly of the hip, spine, wrist and shoulder.   A fragility fracture is a fracture resulting from a fall from a standing height and may be an indication of osteoporosis.  Most fractures in women past the age of 50 are fragility fractures. And yet, fewer than 20% of individuals with fragility fractures receive anti-osteoporosis treatment post fracture.  That is a gap in treatment as clearly a fracture is an event that is part of the diagnosis of osteoporosis, much like a heart attack being an event that helps diagnosis heart disease.   

Fortunately anti-osteoporosis treatments are used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis. Fortunately there are now a variety of medicines available today that can slow the rate of bone loss or increase bone thickness. Even small amounts of new bone growth can reduce your risk of broken bones.

If you are diagnosed with osteoporosis, you may be prescribed an anti-resorptive drug.  There are a few medications in this category, either taken orally, by 6 month injection or once a year intravenously.  There are other medications on the market, but this is our common first choice.

These drugs can reduce bone loss and fracture risk and may actually help build some bone density. You and your physician need to review the drug treatment options, assessing the risks and benefits each offers and choose the best treatment for you, based on current scientific evidence. What is very reassuring is that physicians have excellent guidelines from Osteoporosis Canada as to what is a first choice option. We know each patient is different and the side effects or mode of administration may suit different circumstances in different patients. Some people respond better to one drug than another. Some people have side effects on one and not another.

         No matter what drug therapy you choose, remember that a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is required to maintain healthy bones. Calcium is the cornerstone of strong bones. Adults up to age 50 need 1,000 milligrams per day. Beginning at age 51, women need 1,200 milligrams every day, and when men hit 71, they need to hit that mark, too. The pop star of calcium sources is undoubtedly milk. A single 8-ounce cup of milk, whether skim, low fat, or whole, has 300 milligrams of calcium.

Source: Source –www.OoteoporosisCanada.com)

Remember, healthy aging is all about how to take care of yourself today so that you can enjoy an active healthy life tomorrow and bone health is one part of the equation.

 

 

 

Boning up on Bone Health. Why diet & exercise are important in preventing Osteoporosis

Part Two. *

Bone is a living tissue that is constantly renewed through a process in which old bone is removed and replaced by new bone. Cells called osteoclasts erode the bone, creating small cavities; bone-forming cells called osteoblasts then fill in the cavities with new bone. This is nature’s way of restoring bones and keeping them healthy.

In younger people with healthy bones, the osteoclasts and osteoblasts work together, maintaining healthy bones. However, after our mid-30s the process is not as efficient, and we begin to gradually lose bone. In someone with osteoporosis, bone loss occurs more rapidly, causing the bones to become thinner and weaker over time. If you have osteoporosis, you have already lost a significant amount of bone and may continue to do so unless you receive medication.  Over 80% of all fractures in people 50+ are caused by osteoporosis.

That’s why diet and exercise is recommended as part of an overall healthy approach to preventing osteoporosis.

 We need to emphasize the importance of regular weight-bearing exercise for bone health. Weight bearing exercise, where you use your body weight in activities such as walking, running and weight lifting will help your bones become denser. The result is that you develop more bone material, and your bones become denser. Brisk walking, dancing, tennis, and yoga have all been shown to help your bones.

It will also help your balance and strength, which could help to prevent falls

Diet

  • Calcium is the cornerstone of strong bones. Adults up to age 50 need 1,000 milligrams per day. Beginning at age 51, women need 1,200 milligrams every day, and when men hit 71, they need to hit that mark, too. The pop star of calcium sources is undoubtedly milk. A single, 8-ounce cup of milk, whether skim, low-fat, or whole, has 300 milligrams of calcium.
  • Not a milk drinker? A cup of yogurt has at least as much calcium as an 8-ounce cup of milk. And 1 ounce of Swiss cheese has nearly as much. Even if you’re lactose intolerant, yogurt and hard cheeses are low in lactose. Or try dairy products that are lactose-reduced or lactose-free. Removing lactose from milk and dairy foods does not affect the calcium content
  • You might be surprised to learn that calcium is plentiful in many vegetables. Go for dark leafy greens such as Bok Choy, Chinese cabbage, and kale. If dairy products, sardines, and leafy greens leave you cold, consider eating fortified foods. These are products that do not naturally contain calcium but have been enhanced with varying amounts of the essential mineral.
  • Breakfast foods are a great start — fortified orange juice has up to 240 milligrams of calcium, and fortified cereals deliver up to 1,000 milligrams per cup. Check the nutritional label for the exact amount.
  • Half a cup of calcium-enriched tofu has as much as 861 milligrams of calcium, but calcium is not the only mineral that gives bones a leg up. New research suggests plant-based chemicals called isoflavones strengthen bone density as well. Isoflavones are plentiful in soy foods, such as tofu, and seem to have an estrogen-like effect on the body. For some women, this is a positive side effect, while others may choose to limit their intake
  • Salmon and other types of fatty fish offer an array of bone-boosting nutrients. They contain calcium as well as vitamin D, which aid in calcium absorption. They’re also high in omega-3 fatty acids, important as antioxidants in the body

 Calcium Supplements

Supplements are an easy way to boost your calcium intake, but some reports suggest you may not need them. If you’re already getting enough calcium from food, taking more in pill form won’t contribute to bone health. Experts say there’s little benefit in getting more than 2,000 milligrams of calcium per day, and too much can lead to kidney stones. For the best absorption, take no more than 500 milligrams at one time. Some calcium supplements, such as calcium carbonate, are better absorbed if taken with meals; however, calcium citrate can be taken anytime

Vitamin D

 

 

Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and store calcium from the foods we eat. Our bodies can produce vitamin D when we are exposed to sunlight. However, during the winter months, most Canadians do not get enough sun exposure to produce adequate amounts of vitamin D, nor do we get enough vitamin D through our dietary intake. However, Vitamin D intake can be enhanced through dietary sources and supplements.  It is important to continue to take Vitamin D, even in the summer months, as we tend to wear sunblock that limits the absorption of vitamin D.

Osteoporosis Canada recommends the following intake of vitamin D (total intake through diet and supplementation) on a daily basis.  For people age 19-50; 400-1,000 IU, and for those of us over the age of fifty; 800-2,000 IU’s.

* Source – www.osteoporosiscanada.com

 

No Bones about it: Protect Yourself From Osteoporosis

Part # 1

A ninety-four year old woman has had two major falls in the past twenty years. Upon falling down a flight of stairs, she fractured her arm. More recently, when this tiny woman was picked up by a gust of wind and then dropped on the parking lot pavement one icy winter day, she fractured her elbow.  In both situations she could have also easily broken her hip or spine yet she didn’t. She recovered fully, continues to drive, live independently and most importantly enjoys a healthy and active life.

At ninety-four she most certainly has lost bone mass which peaks at the age of 16-20 for girls and 20-25 in men.  As women approach menopause they lose bone mass at the rate of 2-3% a year. Yet it would seem that a healthy diet, regular weight-bearing exercise and preventative medication are able to decrease the risk of fractures and the advance of osteoporosis.  And in a healthy, fit, active person, even when there is a fracture, there is better healing and recovery.

What is osteoporosis? 

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. This leads to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture (broken bones), particularly of the hip, spine, wrist and shoulder. Osteoporosis is often known as “the silent thief” because bone loss occurs without symptoms. Osteoporosis is sometimes confused with osteoarthritis, because the names are similar. Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, with loss of the normal strength and quality of the bone, as well as a decrease in the amount of bone. Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints and surrounding tissue, often described as wear and tear of a previously normal, smooth joint.  *

Consider this:

Osteoporosis can strike at any age and affects both men and women.

The most common sites of fractures are the hips, wrist, spine and  shoulder.

At least 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men will suffer from an osteoporotic fracture during their lifetime.

Twenty-eight per cent of women and 37% of men who suffer a hip fracture will die within the following year.

Over 80% of all fractures in people 50+ are caused by osteoporosis.

How can you protect yourself?

Fortunately, there are a variety of ways an individual can protect or improve their bone health.

Have your physician conduct a fracture risk assessment! This may include a bone mineral density test, (BMD) which determines the amount of healthy bone you maintain.  Risk assessment is also evaluating your personal risk, your family history, your age and other complicating factors.  The average age for a BMD is 65 according to Osteoporosis Canada, but a risk assessment begins at age 50!

The two main issues I try to look at with every patient over the age of 50 is significant height loss, yes that’s why we measure your height, and if you have had a fracture since I last saw you–that way I quickly have an idea if there is an increased risk of osteoporosis in that patient.

Eat a healthy diet of calcium rich foods such as leafy greens and dairy products or soy-based products if you are averse to dairy.

Take Calcium & Vitamin D. If you are eating well, you may be getting enough calcium in your diet and supplements are not needed.  Generally speaking, we all need Vitamin D supplements as we get little direct sunlight in North America and that is the common source of Vitamin D.

For those over 50, Canada’s Food Guide recommends 3 servings of milk and alternatives – yogurt, cheese, calcium-fortified beverages, puddings, custards, etc.

This essentially means that, if you are over 50, you need the equivalent of one good serving of dairy at each meal or 1200 units a day of calcium supplements.

I have yogurt each day and at least one latte, so I often decide at night if I have had that 3rd serving of dairy that day.  If not, I take 500mg of Calcium.  If I have had 3 servings, then the third calcium is not needed and NOT advised. More is not better. So you can decide day by day, depending on your diet as it is normal for this to vary a bit every day.

Vitamin D a day –400-1000 IU’s for adults under 50 and 800-2000 IU for adults over 50.  That is a must!

Exercise.  Use weight-bearing exercises that uses your body weight such as walking, running, weight lifting to help to strengthen both bones and muscles, as well as improving your balance.

Consider taking medications that build bone density and prevent bone loss if your risk assessment is significant and you are at risk for fracture. We know that low risk individuals have less than a 10% risk of fracture in the next year and can do well with diet and exercise.  High-risk folks have a greater than 20% risk and should be on medications. And for those of us between 10 and 20%, the moderate risk patients, the decision is individualized, as there are more issues to consider this is the art of medicine and warrants a discussion with your physician.
*Osteoporosis Canada  WWW.osteoporosis.ca